July 21, 2014

The Virtues of Wooden Shoes

The virtues of wood shoes are manifold
  • 100% renewable, biodegradable materials
  • Durable, long lasting, and can be renovated
  • Impact, pierce, and crush resistant
  • Heat, cold, and chemical resistant
  • Waterproof
  • Luxurious comfort, at least for standing on hard surfaces and light walking
  • Meet CE standards for safety shoes
  • Fashionable, even dare I say cute?

I've been wearing wood shoes part time for about 8 years now. I'm surprised they are not more popular! I've got a total of three pairs, and given that I can work on them myself, I anticipate I'll be able to keep them going for a long time. One pair is a tight fit, for thin socks and summer wear. Below is me with my first daughter at the park for lunch, 7 years ago.

Another is a loose fit, to accommodate two pairs of wool socks for winter bike commuting (as seen in main picture at the top, with gaiters).

The third I usually leave at the bottom of the basement stairs to use as cellar slippers. Violet asked me to get her a red pair which I was happy to supply.

Many people including me feel terrible after spending any time standing on concrete. My job, while not as on your feet as a hospital job, still involves many hours spent standing in the lab, which is concrete topped with vinyl composition tile. Standing on concrete in wood shoes is way more comfortable than standing in regular shoes. I've also worn them to work trade shows, which are hell on my feet and back with normal shoes.

They do take some getting used to; heavy wool socks are helpful. The various wood shoes I have bought have not been ready to wear as purchased. Since the vast majority of wood shoes sold these days are sold as tourist trinkets rather than functional footwear, a few tweaks are helpful prior to trying to wear them. In particular, there is a sharp transition around the inner edge of the foot hole that ought to be eased, especially where it curves over the arch. This can be accomplished quickly with a rasp

and some sandpaper.

Once this is done, the process of breaking in your feet can begin.

The shoes actually do break in a little bit, in that the bottoms become softer after repeated exposure to water and walking. The edges of the bottoms also wear as you walk in them to make taking steps more comfortable. But I think the main thing that needs to happen is for the nerves in certain parts of your feet to become less sensitive. After about a year of wearing the clogs at least once a week, they are actually quite comfortable.

If you want to get a lot of baffled looks, try wearing wood shoes while traveling through airports. They have a nice loud clack on the hard floors which draws plenty of attention from any people who are around, who are rewarded for their curiosity by seeing something unusual and puzzling. Sometimes when we are out together Becky thinks people are checking her out, and that she must look extra good that day. But then she is irked to find they are actually just checking out my shoes!

I got my first pair of wood shoes in Holland just before my eldest daughter was born. We were visiting my good friend JD and his wife, who were living in Amsterdam for a year, and we had a wonderful trip. One day we took the train out to see a living history style Dutch village, Zans Schans. Here are JD and Anne on our day trip:

An attraction I definitely wanted to see there was the Klompenmakerij.

They had a set of fascinating machines from the 1920s or 30s for making wood shoes. The wood starts out green, which makes it very easy to work though I imagine some shoes are lost to cracking during later drying. These days most wood shoes seem to be made from poplar, but I read that willow used to be preferred. A typical medium diameter log might get split into quarters to make 4 shoes per length of trunk.

The first machine was a pattern copying lathe. A shoe to be copied was mounted between centers, while the green wood blank is mounted between another set of adjacent centers. The pattern and blank are revolved synchronously at a sedate pace while a pantograph like arrangement rides the surface of the pattern while moving a circular saw like cutter in an analogous fashion over the blank. In this way, most of the exterior of the shoe is formed.

The second machine is an internal pattern copy mortiser type arrangement. The blank and the pattern are locked in place and a pantograph controlled cutter is used to first cut the heel pocket, then repositioned to reach up into the mid and toe sections.

The leftover centers extending from the shoe are chopped off and it is allowed to dry. Then the outside is sanded down. When I was watching the wood shoe making demo in Zans Schans, I started thinking it would be neat to wear these shoes. So after thinking about that, I purchased a pair in Amsterdam.

My two other pairs have been bought on the internets, from DutchVillage.com.

I bet 99.9% wood shoes made are for tourists to buy and take home to use for planters, bird houses, decorations, and other uses besides shoes. But there are a few people who actually wear them. I saw a worker at a construction site in Amsterdam wearing wood shoes. I talked to him about it, and he was the one who clued me in to their ability to meet the criteria for safety shoes in the EU. Also the guy working the demo at the wood shoe workshop. And on occasion, an elderly dutch mechanical engineer at my job.

I really want to get around to making some uppers for one of my pairs, like the boots shown above (photo taken from the Klompenmakerij). This would be great for winter, and would keep snow out better than the gaiters I think.

One other resource for those interested in wood shoes is this book:

I had to buy it, since for some reason they didn't have it in the library.

We've all been there, right?. Your favorite pair of wood clogs is worn flat in the heel and canting to the side.

Or maybe the bottoms are worn clean through.

Luckily wood shoes, in addition to being completely renewable, durable, compostable, and fashion forward are pretty simple to work on with basic woodworking tools.

My experience is that the heels wear out first. I've reheeled a few times, in the following photos I used some 12mm thick poplar leftover window stop molding.

The main complicating factor in an otherwise simple operation is that in my case at least the heels don't wear evenly.

So the question is how to fill the gap between the new bottom piece and the remainder of the shoe body. Typically I first epoxy on the bottom, then go back and fill in with wood wedges and more epoxy. Finally, sand around to contour and clean things up.

First, clean up the shoe to receive the new piece. I wire brushed and sanded, then used a rough bench plane.

Cutting out the new pieces.

Ready to epoxy.

Sticking them on and filling the gaps from the sides.

Ready for final sanding.

After a reheeling and a lot more wear, this same set of wood shoes wore all the way through in the front section on the bottom.  By this time, they needed new heels again too. I used some scraps of spanish cedar to build them up again.

Below is a look into the right shoe; notice the light coming through the crack in front and the bottom.

 Shaping some spanish cedar chunks.

Front and back additions for both shoes.

First some cleaning up though.

Trimming the extra off the bottom pieces, after the glue has set.

Epoxy on some toe pieces and wedges for the big gaps between shoe and bottom additions.

The Waterlox on the right was not put on the shoes; it was used on the drum that was going on at the same time.

After final trimming and sanding.

You can see the remnants of previous reheeling operations above the spanish cedar pieces.

Ready to go another round. Second pair that needs new heels shown on the right.

I should also mention that level 0 of wood shoe renovation is just sanding it down, which is akin to shining the shoes. They do tend to get dirty and marked up. Maybe less so if they are finished rather than raw wood. But 10 minutes with a palm sander and they look great again.

July 10, 2014

Spanish Cedar doll beds, to furnish tiny apartments

The kids made some row houses with Becky from cardboard boxes for their little animal figurines. They pasted on some pattern paper for wall paper, and cut out some pictures from magazines for decorations.

Drum Building with Deerhide

This spring, Becky ran a once a week native american club at the Somerville Growing Center for the kids and some other local homeschoolers. They did a number of neat things, one of which was making some hand drums from deerhide.

June 10, 2014

Urban Micro Orchard: Planning and Planting

As part of the grand backyard landscape plan, we reserved the southwest facing back fence for a line of espaliered apple trees. The idea is to train the trees in a two dimensional plane, parallel to that of the fence, thus taking up little space, enabling considerable fruit production, and hopefully looking great.

I've been an admirer of espalier since I read about it years ago, and have wanted to incorporate the principles into some plants of my own. The espalier propaganda says fruit production is high per square meter of ground space because all parts of the tree and growing fruit are exposed to sun. And disease pressure may be lower because of uniform circulation of fresh air. Most of all, I think espaliered trees are a beautiful and inspiring example of Nature shaped by the hand of Man.

June 5, 2014

Violet Sews a Library Bag

The other week Violet asked me to help her make a bag for transporting her books to and from the library.

May 29, 2014

Converting to Natural Leavening for Bread

I've been baking bread for a few years, and always been a little interested in sourdough. But I generally don't favor the very sour versions you typically find labeled as sourdough, and the process seemed like a lot of extra work. However, I recently read Cooked by Michael Pollan, which has a section on bread that made me excited to try 100% natural leavening.

April 23, 2014

Homemade cat shaped grease bar: A viable lotion replacement

Making lotion is not too hard, and quite interesting from a chemistry point of view. But it does take a little time and it is unfortunate that emulsifiers and preservatives are required. I read about anhydrous moisturizing products at the excellent Point of Interest! blog, and have wanted to try making such a product.

April 10, 2014

Worsted wool skirt, with silk braces

I was up late last Sunday and Monday nights making up this skirt for Violet to wear to her singing group recital on Tuesday. It turned out nicely and didn't take all that much time, as measured on the scale of how long it usually takes me to do a sewing project.

March 10, 2014

Making mortise lock door hardware

The antique exterior doors in my house have big brass and steel mortise locks in them. I like these units, and the doorknobs and plates that go along with them.

I've been working on two exterior doors these past couple years. The original doors and hardware were just too far gone to save, and I wanted to let more light in through a larger area of glass panes. We had new frames and doors put in (doors from Simpson, frame and assembly at J.C. Adams), with new brass hinges from Rejuvenation. But I had the door place not do anything for lock hardware. When the doors first were installed, I put in a modern deadbolt, both for security and to hold the doors closed while I figured out the lock situation.

On another replacement exterior door I had bought a lovely eastlake style antique entry mortise lock with matching strike and plates. This time I didn't see anything like that on ebay, so I just bought two locks figuring I could buy the plates and strike separately. I'm sure no one will be surprised to find that the knob to lock cylinder distance was not standard and I couldn't find any suitable plates. Bah! I even took the locks to Olde Bostonian and rummaged through their bins without success.

What to do?

They are not fancy, but I just machined some out of brass stock one Friday night at work. Stock was purchased from Onlinemetals. Locks were mortised into the doors with my trusty 'Maul' Tool co. antique mortiser.

February 7, 2014

Urban Edible Paradise: Backyard Renovation

With the planning mostly done, and a contract signed with a landscaping company, we were ready to renovate the back yard.

On an early November day, Tom's crew of 7 showed up and ripped into the backyard. It was amazing to watch. The fence came down, the trees were cut,

 asphalt broken up,

 Bobcat wreaking havoc.

A place we had gotten to know over more than a decade and seemed so static was dramatically changed in just one day.

Over the next couple weeks, these guys built a bunch of retaining wall, moved tons of soil, trimmed trees, made beds, spread mulch, put in some irrigation pipes, window wells, brick walkway, the back section of fence, a large number of fence posts, and a bunch of other stuff as well. Buster loved watching them drive the Bobcat and the dump truck around the yard.

Becky was busy fiddling around with plan after plan while the crew worked outside, and we often didn't have final measurements or directions for them until they were poised to put something in the ground or make irreversible choices. Once it was committed to reality, sometimes literally in stone, it also became fixed in the plan.

The back section fence was to be installed by Tom with some particular details I specified, and they would also put in the fence posts for all the other fencing. The back fence turned into a pretty big headache for everyone, but more on that later.

The plan is for me to build the side fences and gates, which will do with wood ordered from lowpricedcedar.com, along the lines of the small section of fence I made last summer. Having nearly 500 fence pickets to do though, I need to figure out how to make production of them less time consuming. Current idea is to build a robot to do most of the picket top shaping, with a little final chisel work and sanding by hand. I'm also going to change the support rail and picket attachment design.

The big wood order came by LTL freight from the pacific northwest. Shipping was pretty expensive, but even still it was far cheaper to go this way than buying the same material locally (I got numerous quotes on it). Estes, the carrier, called the morning it was due for delivery and said they would not be able to get it off the truck with a liftgate for curbside residential service like I had paid for. They refused to deliver the parcel, basically unless I had a loading dock to put it on or a forklift to take it off. So I rented a truck and picked it up at their terminal, then unloaded it by hand the next day.

It was 2.4m long, one pallet wide. I'm pretty sure they could have got it on a lift gate. Millie and Buster played in the truck and helped me by moving in the small pieces. They also hung out at the workbench using hand tools on scrap wood.

I stacked and partially stickered it in the basement.

 There it awaits my attentions.

Originally I yearned for drystone walls all around the house. Drystone is great because it drains well, can shift a bit with temperature and soil movement without cracking, can be re-built in a straightforward manner when necessary, and I think it looks sublimely good. I read a bunch of books on drystone walls, and even took a really cool class at Hancock Shaker Village in western mass while Becky was pregnant with our first child.

Wow. I look so young and full of vim in that picture! I am now too fat to fit in those overalls, and otherwise feel a lot older and more tired. 

There were about 10 people in the class, and we took down and rebuilt a section of dry stone retaining wall about 6 meters long and 1.5m high. This took 2 days, or 20 person days. I was eager to build the retaining walls in the backyard like this, but the sad reality is that the amount of time I seem to be able to scrape together for such projects is not large. It could easily take me decades to build those walls.

On the downside, drystone is a lot of work to build, and there are not that many people who have the experience, knowledge, and patience to do a good job. If you can find someone who can do it, it is going to be really expensive. It's also not the best thing for durability where kids are going to be climbing up on it and running around on top of it, unless its built from big pieces which takes a crew of skilled workers, hydraulics or a lot of manpower and windlasses and booms to maneuver. Here is a big foundation stone being moved at my class.

Another option we considered was reclaimed granite blocks. To get to a height for the two retaining walls in back of 60cm (2'), reclaimed curb was not going to do it, unless stacked flatwise several courses high. We didn't favor the look of flat stacked curb.

We looked at reclaimed foundation block, but it would have cost about $10K in materials alone to run the two walls. Plus the Bobcat was the extent of machinery readily available to Yardworks, and it was not really up to slinging the big granite blocks.

The option Tom proposed was a blasted ledge wall, built so that the exposure of mortar on the outside was minimal. Using aged or reclaimed stone would have looked nice, but the material was going to be too costly. So we used newly blasted stone, which Tom says comes from construction sites where they need to take out rock during building.

The crew is clearly experienced with this construction method and did a excellent job of it.

They sort of fit the stones together to make a front and a back face, with more attention paid to making the front look good. Then some concrete is poured in between to hold everything in place. This makes the fitting and form factor requirements of the stone stacking much less strict than with drystone work. At the top of the wall, small stones are fit in to make it more level, and the mortar is dressed in between the top stones.

They built the walls on a gravel base, but not below frost line. Tom says he's been building this type of wall for a long time and it should have good longevity. Its not totally reliant on mortar to hold it together. No special measures were taken in relation to drainage from behind the wall. The walls are short, the area behind them is not that large, and the concrete put in the center of the walls doesn't form a continuous barrier. So hopefully they will be ok.

The walls ended up being much more work than I had imagined. They built both walls together, then backfilled them with soil, so the back one ended up being quite a bit more stone than one might have expected. Tom said they brought in over 50 tons of stone for the walls, and they probably mixed 50-100 bags of concrete one sack at a time in a wheelbarrow while putting the wall together.

Granite Blocks
I did really like how the antique granite looked, and while we had to scale back to using new granite for the little center steps in the lower terrace and ditched the idea of granite for the walls, I felt that a couple of strategically placed antique blocks would make the landscape design more interesting. I worked with oldenewenglandgranite.com to scope out some pieces I had in mind. They sent pictures once they had identified some candidates, and Tom picked them up in his dump truck. One large stone, about 90x45x40cm (36x18x15") was used in the center of the rear retaining wall. This was tough to get into place since it was too heavy for the Bobcat. Tom ended up dumping it right off the truck in nearly the right spot and with some levering it was put in place.

In retrospect I should have had them set the big stone proud of the wall by a few cm since as it turned out it kind of blends into the wall too much. Still, I like having it there and I think it looks good.

Two smaller blocks were put as sort of seats positioned out in the future grass/bed area. These look cool sitting out in the space.

What if we want to move them around? Maybe we could elevate the rocks a bit in the fall, freeze a layer of ice on the ground in the winter, then push them around to their new places. Curling with 250kg rocks!

Josh, the guy I worked with at the stone yard, said these blocks were bought from the city of Boston and had been taken out of a sea wall or foundation in Chelsea during the Big Dig. They have a lot of character and look classy in the yard.

Side Path
The new walkway is brick, laid from the Boston City Hall paver product purchased from Landscape Express in Woburn.

The guys made a compacted base of gravel and crushed stone, then laid the bricks in and trimmed all the ones that needed it.

It looks great! You can also see that I am almost done with the trim on the little back porch. Just need to make some brackets, plug a few more screwhead holes, and finish up the painting. The door does need a storm, which I am slowly working on in the basement.

Before we first planted a small garden, we sent some of our soil to Umass for testing. It came back "medium" on the lead screen. The recommendation was that eating fruits was ok, but we should not plant greens or roots. We grew a few tomato plants, and eventually our housemates made us two raised beds in front where we didn't need to worry about the soil so much.

Knowing that urban soil in general is often contaminated and poor in nutrients, and also that our specific lot had some issues in that regard, we sent soil samples representative of five zones to Umass for analysis after the renovation.

We got the usual nutrient tests, lead screen, and for most of them the additional organic matter test. The worst result on lead is from right next to the house. This came up as 68ppm extracted, which is midway in the "medium" range of 22-126ppm. The side bed came in at 25ppm, at the very low end of the medium range. The new soil brought in, the front garden box, and the existing soil in back that had been scraped down during grading all were in the low range.

Reading the recommendations at Umass, It is recommended not to let pregnant women or children come in contact with soil in in the medium test range, and not to grow leafy vegetables in it. All the unmodified soil in our yard is probably in the medium range. This is typical for our area and is a legacy of 100 years of leaded gasoline and lead house paint.

It is not really practical to not let the kids come in contact with the soil anywhere on our lot, but we do try to keep it to a minimum by keeping the dirt covered with mulch or plants. Per Massachusetts law, our kids have lead tests done on their blood every year, and they have all been low. So our setup is ok as is, we just have to take care not to increase exposure.

As we talked to landscape contractors, we looked into the idea of scraping off the top 30cm of soil from the whole lot and taking it away, then bringing in new soil. No one thought this was a good idea and said it was going to be impractical, a huge amount of work, and very expensive. So we let that one go.

Further reading indicates that much of the problem with gardening in leaded soil involves ways for the soil to get ingested, rather than uptake of lead in the plant tissue itself. A potato is going to have more soil on it than an apple, and will involve more soil disturbance in planting and harvesting. Planting perennials which won't require constant working of the dirt and keeping the surface mulched seems like it should keep the level of soil exposure down. In addition, I am planning on sending out plant tissue from things grown in these areas for lead analysis before we eat much from it. There are only a few things that would be right next to the house and in the worst lead area.

Zone 1
These are the new terraces behind the retaining walls. They were filled partly with soil scraped up during grading from the side yard and zone 3, then topped with 30-50 cm of new topsoil from Landscape Express; their "Superloam" product. The soil sent for test is the new stuff on top. Probably the fill underneath has lead, but being buried under the new soil will help contain the leaded soil.

The new soil is 6.7pH, very low in lead, in the Optimal range for nutrients (other than being too high in Calcium), and has 5.1% organic matter. So this seems just about perfect.

Zone 2
The front garden box. This was originally filled with straight compost that Alexi and LeeAnn laboriously hauled in a Zipcar truck from Ipswitch. Much of our compost in the intervening years has also gotten dumped on here. But the last year or two many things have been growing very poorly in there. Lets see what the soil test says.

Wow, the meters are pegged in several areas. The level of K is 27 times the high limit of the optimal range. Ca and Mg are also extremely high, and organic matter is almost 11%. The organic matter is not surprising since it is basically aged compost, but how did the other levels get so ridiculously high? Not sure what to do to fix it, other than diluting it with other soil?

Zone 3
This will be planted in clover/grass lawn mix for the time being, and may in future turn into more gardening beds. Much of it was scraped down during the grading of the back.

It is low lead, which is interesting since it is not offsite material like zones 1 and 2. I have to think the grading took off the top layer of soil, where the lead was more concentrated. The nutrient levels are quite low. Maybe this is from the fact that it was scraped down and the lower layers don't have much nutrients. Or the fact that it was scraggly lawn over the top of it for decades. In any case it is clear this soil needs some help if we expect much to happen in it. Maybe some aerating with a broadfork followed by thick sheet mulching for a year. Or a few years of cover crops, including daikon to do some bio-drilling. But its nice to have low lead there in any case!

Zone 4
This was the worst area for lead, which makes sense since it is right next to the house and has been polluted with decades of lead paint runoff. Other levels look ok, though it is rather high in Zinc. Also high on Ca, like Zones 1 and 2.

Zone 5
This area is slightly above the low lead cutoff, so we won't worry excessively on that account but will of course keep it in mind.

In contrast to other areas, it is a little low in Ca (but way high on K..?). How do these nutrient levels get so out of whack? Organic matter is pretty good, surprisingly, micronutrients are ok. Biggest problem with this area is that we'd like to plant blueberries there. This would involve dropping the pH at least 1.5 points. I've read that dropping pH of soil more than a point is difficult and expensive to do and requires continuous application of amendments. Maybe we should look at something that won't take as much soil modification, like Haskap.

Next Steps
As spring rolls around, we will plant a bunch of the bushes, trees, and perennials that we've scoped out. Plus some annuals for this year. We may hook up some irrigation, if we should tire of dragging a big hose around for watering. I'll start working on the side fences and gates. I need to build the trellis for the apple trees in back.

I saw this book in the back of the Fedco catalog, and got it from the library:

Its pretty fun to read. I'm excited to plant me some oats and broomcorn!